The Books of Moses:

Fact or Fiction?

 

Session 2

 

 

 

 

Origin of Life

 

 

 

 

 

Bruce Armstrong

 

 

 

Origin of Life

Table of Contents

Introduction

Special Creation

Creation of Plants

Creation of Aquatic Animals and Flying Creatures

Aquatic Animals Created

Flying Creatures Created

Evolutionary Explanations and Issues

Origin of the First Cell

Biogenesis

Chemical Evolution, Also Known As Abiogenesis

How Life Evolved: 10 Steps to the First Cells

Synthetic Life?

Basic Biochemicals

Complex Biopolymers

Complexity of Living Cells

Cell Walls and Membranes

Mitochondria and ATP Motor

DNA Replication

Bacterial Flagellum and Irreducible Complexity

Eukaryotic DNA Replication and Transcription

Photosynthesis

The Wheel and Magnet

Conclusion

Appendix

 

 

 

Introduction

In our last session, we looked at the two main competing theories claiming to explain where the physical matter of Earth and our universe came from: Special Creation and the Big Bang.  Today we will be examining the Origin of Life.  In the Biblical Special Creation model, we will look at the origin of plants, aquatic animals and flying creatures.  In the Atheistic Natural Evolution model we will restrict our examination to their next huge hurdle: the origin of the first living cell.

 

Special Creation

The Bible teaches that physical life began with the direct creation of the basic kinds of plants.

 

Creation of Plants

 

And God said, “Let there spring forth on the earth grass, the plant yielding seed after its kind, and the fruit tree making fruit after its kind, in which is its seed, upon the earth.”  And it was so.  And the earth brought forth grass, the plant yielding seed after its kind, and the tree yielding fruit in which is its seed after its kind, and God saw that it was good.

And there was evening and there was morning: Third day.    Genesis 1:11 to 13

 

The creation of all the kinds of plants occurred on the Third Day.  Kinds in the Biblical account needs to be made clear:  A kind is a type of plant or animal which is distinct from other kinds, and the original created creatures contained complex genetics which would allow the kind to diversify into various families and species which can adapt to local conditions and environments.  An example of a kind from the plant kingdom is the pea kind, which was able to diversify into field peas, garden peas, telegraph peas, snow peas and sugar snap peas.  Evidence that these are derived from the same kind is the fact that they can interbreed and produce offspring which are usually fertile.

 

As the Bible claims that these original plants were created directly by God, we would also expect them to immediately have perfect genetics and be perfectly designed for their role in the completed biosphere.  This is the opposite to the evolutionary model, in which the organisms are slowly shaped by mutations and natural selection until they become well enough adapted to survive in their niche.

 

As each kind is separately created, we would expect that there will usually be distinct differences, or gaps, between kinds.  But as they are all made by the same Creator, we would also often expect that similar DNA, mechanisms and structures are used in the different kinds to perform similar functions.  Often, very different organisms will exhibit some of these almost identical structures.   These gaps and similarities indicate a common designer.  In contrast, common descent, as taught in evolution, should only show smooth transitions, not the distinct gaps and unexpected similarities that are observed between kinds.

 

Note that these plants must have grown and matured rapidly and in significant numbers throughout the world as part of the preparation for the creation of animals, which was to happen only one day later.  Some of these kinds are also created as complex vascular plants complete with the ability to flower and yield fruit and seeds.

 

Though not mentioned, it is reasonable to assume that at this time all photosynthesizers are meant, including cyanobacteria, algae and the aquatic plants that were also created as the food source for the aquatic animals which were soon to be created.  Likewise for the microbes and fungus that both live symbiotically with the plants and also break down dead plant material so it can be recycled.

 

Figures 1 to 5 show us some of these plants, essentially in order of increasing complexity.  The basis for this increasing complexity will be looked at in more detail in Session 3, where it is revealed as another major problem for evolution.

 

 
 

Figure 1: Algae, magnified view of a ‘simple’ unicellular plant.

 

 
 

Figure 2: Red, Brown and Green Multicellular Seaweeds

 

 
 

Figure 3: Wild Barley Grass (Israel)