Spirit, Soul and Body

Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Thessalonians 5:23

"for the soul of all flesh is its blood; It is one with its soul. Therefore I said to the children of Israel, 'You shall not eat the blood of any flesh, for the soul of all flesh is its blood. Whoever eats it shall be cut off.'
Leviticus 17:10 to 14

Spirit, Soul and Body
What is the Soul?
The Spirit of Man
The Body of Man
Scriptures misused to support "Immortal Souls" 'Difficult' Scriptures Appendix 1 -- The Words God Chose.
Appendix 2 -- Deuteronomy 12:20-25

Spirit, Soul and Body

Are we more than just a physical body which happens to have chemical reactions and electrical impulses animating it? God says that we are much more than that. King David says in Psalm 139:14 that we "are fearfully and wonderfully made." This study will help you understand how you have been made, what you are now and what you may become.

This booklet may present information on souls which you have not seen before. Sadly, this is because much of the Bible's teaching on souls has been obscured by poor translations which substitute other words for soul and spirit. The verses quoted in this booklet are from the Central Highlands Church of God version. It translates the various Hebrew and Greek words used by God consistently into English. Appendix 1 outlines the lexicon we have used. Now, let us see what God tells us about how He made us:

God says He made us in His image and brought us to life:

Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the livestock, and over all the earth and over all the creeping things that creep on the earth."
Genesis 1:26

And Jehovah God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and the man became a living soul.
Genesis 2:7

Please notice that God says that He formed a man from the dust, not simply a body. He also says that when He breathed into the man he became a living soul, not just a soul. The importance of these details will become clear later.

Thus our composition should give us some idea of what God is like. The Scriptures show that each of us is composed of a spirit, a soul and a body:

Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Thessalonians 5:23
Likewise the Bible tells us that God also has a threefold nature: He has a spirit, a soul and a body as revealed in these (and many other) scriptures.
And Jehovah said, "My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years."
Genesis 6:3

I will set My tabernacle among you, and My soul shall not abhor you.
Leviticus 26:11

I watched until thrones were set up, and the Ancient of Days was seated, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head was like pure wool. His throne was a fiery flame, its wheels a burning fire;
Daniel 7:9

Note that in both cases that the Bible is not teaching that there are three persons in one being, but simply that each person is composed of three parts. This is the true 'trinity', and unlike the false pagan trinity taught by Satan, it is simple to understand and clearly taught in the Bible.

But do not think that I am saying that we are just like God, for we need to be transformed at the resurrection to become like Him. Let us not grow weary of doing good, but instead remember God's promise to change us into His own immortal, spiritual children, the younger siblings of His Only Begotten Son Jesus Christ. This is part of His promise:

There is one glory of the sun, another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs from another star in glory.
So also is the resurrection of the dead. The body is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption. It is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power.
It is sown a soulish(1) body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a soulish body, and there is a spiritual body.
And so it is written, "The first man Adam became a living soul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.
However, the spiritual is not first, but the soulish, and afterward the spiritual. The first man was of the earth, made of dust; the second Man is the Lord from heaven.
As was the man of dust, so also are those who are made of dust; and as is the heavenly Man, so also are those who are heavenly.
And as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly Man.
Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does corruption inherit incorruption.
Behold, I tell you a mystery: Indeed, we shall not all fall asleep, but we shall all be changed; in a moment, in the blink of an eye, at the last trumpet. For it will trumpet, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. And when this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and this mortal shall put on immortality, then the word which is written will occur: "Death was swallowed up in victory."
1 Cor 15:41 to 54
But let us keep our joy over the future in perspective. Verse 41 reminds us that there are different glories. Just like stars that shine brightly on a moonless night but pale in the presence of the moon or the sun, the glory of the brethren shall be as nothing compared to the glory of Jesus and His Father. (Matthew 13:43)

Now let us look more closely at what the Bible teaches us about souls.

What is the Soul?

Soul in the Bible is translated from two words, nephesh in the Hebrew and psuche in the Greek. Both of these words are based on the idea of breathing, of being the living link between the body and the spirit in both animals and man. It can easily be demonstrated that the Biblical writers regarded these words as equivalent by showing Peter's quotation of Psalm 16:

Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoices; my flesh (basar) will also rest in hope for You will not leave my soul (nephesh) in Sheol, nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption.
Psalm 16:9 to 10

therefore my heart rejoiced, and my tongue was glad; moreover my flesh (sarx) will also rest in hope, because You will not leave my soul (psuche) in Hades, nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption.
Acts 2:26 to 27

These verses reveal that when we die our souls go to Sheol (or Hades in the Greek) -ie the grave. They also reveal that our souls will not remain there - they will be raised up at the resurrection as we will see later on.

God also specifies the origin of souls in Gen 1:24 where He says:

Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth live souls, each after its kind: livestock and creeping things and its beasts of the earth, each after its kind"; and it was so.
So we see that souls actually come from the earth. This shows us that when God formed His human (adam) from the earth, He formed both his body and soul from the earth. God does not say that He formed only his body (gheveeyaw) from the earth.

So our souls come from the earth. But what is the role of our souls while we are alive? Are there other scriptures which support the concept of our triune nature as we showed earlier? Or are we composed only of a body and a spirit, and the soul simply refers to the combination of the two as some people claim? Logic suggests that if the soul is only the living combination of the body and spirit, it could not exist as a separate part. And if we are composed of a spirit, soul and body, we would expect to find separate references to each of these parts. Let's delve into God's Word and see what He says:

In Isaiah 10:18 God says "And it will consume the glory of his forest and of his fruitful field, both soul and body" speaking of the destruction of the Israelites who refuse to walk with Him.

Num 19:11 says "'He who touches the dead soul (nephesh) of anyone shall be unclean seven days.'"

If a soul is simply the living combination of a body and spirit, it would not be possible to touch a dead soul as the soul would cease to exist at the moment of death.

God tells us specifically that the soul is distinct from the body in these passages, and where the soul resides:

"When Jehovah your God enlarges your border as He has promised you, and you say, 'Let me eat flesh,' because your soul longs to eat flesh, you may eat flesh, as much as your soul desires.
"If the place where Jehovah your God chooses to put His name is too far from you, then you may slaughter from your herd and from your flock which Jehovah has given you, just as I have commanded you, and you may eat within your gates as much as your soul desires.
"Just as the gazelle and the deer are eaten, so you may eat them; the unclean and the clean alike may eat them.
"Only be sure that you do not eat the blood, for the blood is the soul (nephesh); you may not eat the soul (nephesh) with the flesh (basar).
"You shall not eat it; you shall pour it on the earth like water.
"You shall not eat it, that it may go well with you and your children after you, when you do what is right in the sight of Jehovah.
Deuteronomy 12:20 to 25

'And whatever man of the house of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among you, who eats any blood, I will set My face against that soul who eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people.
'For the soul of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood which atones for the soul.'
"Therefore I said to the children of Israel, 'No soul among you shall eat blood, nor shall any stranger who sojourns among you eat blood.'
"And whatever man of the children of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among you, who hunts and catches any animal or bird that may be eaten, he shall pour out its blood and cover it with dust;
"for the soul of all flesh is its blood; It is one with its soul. Therefore I said to the children of Israel, 'You shall not eat the blood of any flesh, for the soul of all flesh is its blood. Whoever eats it shall be cut off.'
Leviticus 17:10 to 14

God clearly says that our soul is in our blood, and can effectively even be identified with it. Deuteronomy 12:23 also clearly distinguishes our soul from our body, when He says that we can eat the flesh but we are not allowed to eat the soul. (Appendix 2 shows this passage in interlinear Hebrew.) This can only mean that our soul is a separate, distinct part of us. This has a deep significance. It explains why God does not want us taking another creature's (or person's) blood into us as we are partaking of their soul if we do so. From this, and God's statement that the blood atones for the soul, one must also assume that there is something more to the soul than just the blood. These scriptures also reveal that something is seriously wrong with our modern blood-drenched medical practices.

And let us clearly understand that these restrictions were also given to Christians as this passage shows:

"Therefore I judge that we should not trouble those from among the Gentiles who are turning to God, but that we write to them to abstain from things polluted by idols, from fornication, from things strangled, and from blood.
"For Moses has had throughout many generations those who preach him in every city, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath."
Acts 15:19 to 21
Note that two of the above four restrictions relate to blood. The first one is the direct command to avoid blood. It is revealing that in this passage the restriction on blood is not limited to only not eating it. The second blood-related restriction is the command to avoid things strangled. This is because eating a strangled animal is eating an animal which still has its blood in it, a practice which is forbidden in Leviticus 17.

These scriptures explain why the blood was taken from the animal sacrifices and offered separately to God, thus offering both the body and soul of the sacrifice to God. When Jesus was speared in the side during the crucifixion and his blood poured out, it was the fulfilment of the prophecy of Isaiah 53:12, which said that He would "pour out His soul".

Now we can understand that when Jesus presented His shed blood before God in Heaven He was actually presenting His soul to God.

Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
Matthew 26:27 to 28

But when they came to Jesus and saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs.
But one of the soldiers had pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.
And he who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you may believe.
John 19:33 to 35

Then Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in you.
"Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.
"For My flesh is food indeed, and My blood is drink indeed.
"He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him.
"As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who feeds on Me will live because of Me.
John 6:53 to 57

But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.
Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.
For if the blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifies for the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
And for this reason He is the Mediator of the new covenant, by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant, that those who are called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.
Hebrews 9:11 to 15

This understanding of the soul reveals greater truth on the sacrifice of Jesus. To receive eternal life, we need to partake of all aspects of Jesus: spirit, soul and body. The wine we partake of in the Passover can now be seen as not just representing His blood, but also Jesus' soul.

Some other scriptures which help us develop a fuller picture of the role of our souls in our lives and in God's plan of Salvation are:

"And you should not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear the One who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna.
Matthew 10:28

For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Hebrews 4:12

"Therefore I say to you, do not worry about your soul, what you will eat or what you will drink; nor about your body, what you will put on. Is not the soul more than food and the body more than clothing?
Matthew 6:25

In the following verse, Paul clearly refers to Eutychus as having a soul which was in him. If he was a soul, rather than having a soul, Paul would not have referred to his soul in this way.
And in a window sat a certain young man named Eutychus, who was falling into a deep sleep. As Paul continued speaking, he fell deeply asleep and fell down from the third story and was taken up dead.
But Paul went down, fell on him, and embracing him said, "Do not trouble yourselves, for his soul is in him."... And they brought the young man in alive, and they were not a little comforted.
Acts 20:9-10, 12

Here are some other scriptures bringing out various aspects of our souls:

Souls can be sorrowful:

'Then He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me."'
Matthew 26:38
Souls can be damaged by lust:
Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul.
1 Peter 2:11
Souls can pronounce blessings:
"And make me savory food, such as I love, and bring it to me that I may eat, that my soul may bless you before I die."
Genesis 27:4
Souls can be filled with desire:
But Hamor spoke with them, saying, "The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter. Please give her to him as a wife.
Genesis 34:8
Souls can suffer anguish:
Then they said to one another, "We are truly guilty concerning our brother, for we saw the anguish of his soul when he pleaded with us, and we would not hear; therefore this distress has come upon us."
Genesis 42:21
Souls need food:
'On the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but that which every soul must eat; that only may be prepared by you.
Exodus 12:16
Souls can sin:
"If a soul sins, and commits any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of Jehovah, though he does not know it, yet he is guilty and shall bear his iniquity.
"And he shall bring to the priest a ram without blemish from the flock, with your valuation, as a trespass offering...
Leviticus 5:17-18
Souls can hate:
I dismissed the three shepherds in one month. My soul loathed them, and their soul also abhorred me.
Zechariah 11:8
Souls can rejoice:
"Behold, My Servant whom I have chosen, my Beloved in whom My soul is well pleased; I will put My Spirit upon Him, and He will declare justice to the Gentiles.
Matthew 12:18

And Mary said: "My soul magnifies the Lord, and my spirit is exalted in God my Savior.
Luke 1:46

Souls can refuse (and accept) instruction:
'And it shall come to pass that every soul who will not hear that Prophet shall be utterly destroyed from among the people.'
Acts 3:23

(for that righteous man, dwelling among them, tormented his righteous soul from day to day with their lawless deeds);
2 Peter 2:8

And what is the state of the soul after death? This is explained in the "Eternal Life is the Gift of God" booklet. Briefly, The Bible explains that the dead know nothing and can do nothing, so even if the soul is not destroyed when our bodies die, it becomes and remains unconscious until the resurection. ( Psalms 146:3&4, Psalm 115:17, Ecclesiastes 9:5, etc) Jesus has explicitly stated that God will destroy our souls if necessary, so we know that the soul is not immortal. (Matthew 10:28)

The Spirit of Man

As this is a study of the make-up of a human, we also need to look at the spirit portion of people:

Soul and spirit are not the same, but are similar just as joints and marrow are similar:

For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Hebrews 4:12
All humans have the spirit of man, but only spirit-filled Christians have the Spirit of God in them:
For what man knows the things of a man except for the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so no one knows the things of God except for the Spirit of God.
Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might know the things that have been freely given to us by God.
These things we also speak, not in words which man's wisdom teaches but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual.
But the soulish man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.
But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is rightly judged by no one.
For "Who has known the mind of the LORD that he may instruct Him?" But we have the mind of Christ.
1 Corinthians 2:11 to 16
God tells us that we die when our spirit is separated from our body:
For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also.
James 2:26
When we die, our spirit returns to God:
Remember your Creator before the silver cord is loosed, or the golden bowl is broken, or the pitcher shattered at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the well.
Then the dust will return to the earth as it was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it.
Ecclesiastes 12:6 to 7
The Bible reveals that the soul is the part of us which is usually involved in our emotions and physical needs. It appears to be the link between the physical and the spiritual. It can be the worldly side of our thoughts, emotions and passions, and at times also can rejoice in God. Is it perhaps the silver cord or golden bowl, etc??

Though spirit can be eternal, is our spirit necessarily eternally us? Indeed before we were conceived our spirit had not yet been formed by God. The Bible teaches that those people who are cast into the Lake of Fire will be totally destroyed as detailed in our Eternal Life is the Gift of God booklet. It seems likely that this total destruction also involves the complete reshaping of the spirit of the condemned so that no vestige of them remains as suggested by Jeremiah 18:3 to 6.

The Body of Man

As has been shown in this booklet already, our bodies are made of earth, but shall one day be transformed into bodies made of spirit if we become servants of Christ. If we refuse to repent of our sinful ways we will be resurrected, judged and cast into the Lake of Fire and our body (and us with it) will be destroyed forever. There is a saying which goes like this: Born once, die twice. Born twice, die once. The idea is based on John 3:1 to 8. Please choose life.

Scriptures used incorrectly to support "Immortal Souls"

The Death of Rachel

Rachel's death provides a scripture which is used by those who believe in an immortal soul to support their claim. However, as we shall see, they are incorrect.

Then they journeyed from Bethel. And when there was but a little distance to go to Ephrath, Rachel labored in childbirth, and she had hard labor.
Now it came to pass, when she was in hard labor, that the midwife said to her, "Do not fear; you will have this son also."
And so it was, as her soul was departing (for she died), that she called his name Ben-Oni; but his father called him Benjamin.
So Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).
Gen 35:16 to 19
It is reasonable to conclude that Rachel's soul departed from her because it was in her blood and she haemorrhaged to death as a result of complications during Benjamin's birth. Even with our modern medical knowledge such deaths can still occur. Note that this passage does not claim that Rachel's soul was immortal nor that her soul was aware of anything after her death.

The Widow's Son

It also seems probable that a similar occurrence also explains the death and resurrection of the widow's son portrayed in I Kings 17:

Now it happened after these things that the son of the woman who owned the house became sick. And his sickness was so serious that there was no breath left in him.
So she said to Elijah, "What have I to do with you, O man of God? Have you come to me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to kill my son?"
And he said to her, "Give me your son." So he took him out of her arms and carried him to the upper room where he was staying, and laid him on his own bed.
Then he cried out to Jehovah and said, "O Jehovah my God, have You also brought tragedy on the widow with whom I lodge, by killing her son?"
And he stretched himself out on the child three times, and cried out to Jehovah and said, "O Jehovah my God, I pray, let this child's soul come back to him."
Then Jehovah heard the voice of Elijah; and the soul of the child came back to him, and he revived.
1 Kings 17:17 to 22
The most likely event here is that the boy bled to death from a haemorrhagic disease. God would then have resurrected him by restoring his blood/soul and healing the damage caused by the disease.

'Difficult' Scriptures

Can Satan save Job's soul?

The King James translation appears to say that Satan is to save Job's soul in Job 2:6 .

How could Satan "save" Job's soul? Only Jesus can do this! The Hebrew for this verse indeed contains nephesh, but "save" should have been translated as "keep" or "protect" as shown by the attached word study from the Online Bible. - That is, Satan was required to keep Job's soul alive (ie- he was not permitted to kill him). God did not tell Satan to save Job's soul in the sense of redeeming him.

08104 shamar shaw-mar'
a primitive root; TWOT - 2414; v
AV - keep 283, observe 46, heed 35, keeper 28, preserve 21, beware 9, mark 8, watchman 8, wait 7, watch 7, regard 5, save 2, misc 9; 468
(1) to keep, guard, observe, give heed

Does the Bible teach that animals have souls?

Following is the King James translation, including Strong's numbers to show how this translation has been made:

A righteous <06662> man regardeth <03045> (8802) the life <05315> of his beast <0929>: but the tender mercies <07356> of the wicked <07563> are cruel <0394>.
Proverbs 12:10
Yes, soul (nephesh - 5315) is in this verse. Let's see if God really means that animals have souls (nephesh):

Let's go right back to the first use of nephesh in the Hebrew Bible:

Then God said, "Let the waters swarm with swarms of live souls, and let birds fly above the earth across the face of the expanse of the heavens."
God created great sea creatures and every living soul that moves, which the waters swarmed with, according to their kind, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.
Genesis 1:20 & 21
The above quote is our translation, which is almost the same as Darby's and Green's.

Following is the King James, again including the Strong's numbers:

And God <0430> said <0559> (8799), Let the waters <04325> bring forth abundantly <08317> (8799) the moving creature <08318> that hath <05315> life <02416>, and fowl <05775> that may fly <05774> (8787) above <05921> the earth <0776> in the open <06440> firmament <07549> of heaven <08064>.
And God <0430> created <01254> (8799) great <01419> whales <08577>, and every living <02416> creature <05315> that moveth <07430> (8802), which the waters <04325> brought forth abundantly <08317> (8804), after their kind <04327>, and every winged <03671> fowl <05775> after his kind <04327>: and God <0430> saw <07200> (8799) that it was good <02896>.
Genesis 1:20 & 21
You can see that in verse 20 in the KJV soul (nephesh) is actually totally ignored in the first place it appears in the Bible! Only the word for living (2416) is translated. This has been done despite the fact that nephesh was spoken directly by God! In verse 20 God clearly tells us that all aquatic animals have live souls. God repeats this point in verse 21 to make sure that we have got it. Verse 24 expands this to show that all animals have live souls.
Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth living souls, each after its kind: livestock and creeping things and its beasts of the earth, each after its kind"; and it was so.
Genesis 1:24

Remember that God loves all the creatures He has made. God selected the animals to be saved on the Ark during the Great Flood and sent them to Noah. Because God loved the animals He instructed Noah to build an Ark large enough to carry them and their food. (Genesis 6:17 to 22) After the flood God made His covenant with humanity and also with all the animals to never flood the whole earth again. (Genesis 9:9 to 17) In Genesis 9:5 God says that any animals which kill a human will be held accountable to Him for their decision to kill, showing that they have some understanding of righteous and unrighteous actions. Job 38:41 tells us that the animals call out to God for help. Matthew 10:29 tells us that not even a sparrow falls to the ground without God knowing about it. Surely we should treat all of God's creatures with respect. However, remember that this does not make the animals equal to us as they are not made in the Image of God. (Matthew 10:30-31, Genesis 1:26 & 27)

Is a man's soul in a tree?

Someone claimed that Deuteronomy 20:19 teaches that a man's soul (nephesh) is in a tree. This is not true. Nephesh (5315) does not appear in this verse at all, as the Online Bible (KJV) shows:

When thou shalt besiege <06696> (8799) a city <05892> a long <07227> time <03117>, in making war <03898> (8736) against it to take <08610> (8800) it, thou shalt not destroy <07843> (8686) the trees <06086> thereof by forcing <05080> (8800) an axe <01631> against them: for thou mayest eat <0398> (8799) of them, and thou shalt not cut them down <03772> (8799) (for the tree <06086> of the field <07704> is man's <0120> life) to employ <0935> (8800) them in the siege <06440> <04692>: {for the...: or, for, O man, the tree of the field is to be employed in the siege} {to employ...: Heb. to go from before thee}
Deut 20:19
Green translates this section as "for is the tree of the field a man that it should be used by you to lay siege?" - his is a much more accurate translation.

Can a man buy his own soul?

Proverbs 13:8 says: "The ransom of a man's soul is his riches, but the poor does not hear rebuke."

As a Christian, we should understand this verse: Jesus is the ransom for our soul, He is our riches. - (Hosea 13:14) - the spiritually poor are those who will not listen to Jesus' rebuke and will not accept His ransom.

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Appendix 1

Words that God chose:

(Strong's lexicon numbers included)

Appendix 2

Deuteronomy 12:20 to 25

Interlinear Hebrew/English with Strong's Numbers and Green's A Literal Translation of the Bible in the side Panel. Taken from The Interlinear Bible by Jay P. Green.

Note that in verse 23 Green does not translate nephesh (5315) as soul, but instead unjustifiably reverts to translating it as life. This is disappointing as Green's is overall one of the better English translations. In Leviticus 17:14 he (like most translators) refuses to even translate the Hebrew phrase saying "It is one with its soul" referring to the blood.


1. Soulish could also be rendered as "soul-controlled".